Dampak Pertambangan Nikel Terhadap Daerah Penangkapan Ikan di Perairan Kabupaten Halmahera Timur. Deni Sarianto, Domu Simbolon, Budi Wiryawan

ABSTRAK

Kabupaten Halmahera Timur merupakan salah satu pusat kawasan pertambangan Ni di Maluku Utara. Pertambangan ini memiliki pengaruh yang besar terhadap perubahan kualitas perairan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan kandungan MPT di perairan Halmahera Timur, menentukan tingkat kualitas perairan, dan menentukan tingkat degradasi daerah penangkapan ikan (DPI). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan padatan tersuspensi di perairan Halmahera Timur berada di atas NAB yang telah di tetapkan Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup, yaitu kecil dari 25 mg/l. Sedangkan rata-rata kandungan MPT di perairan Halmahera Timur berada di atas 25 mg/l terkecuali Wasile. Kandungan Ni di perairan diketahui berkisar di bawah NAB, akan tetapi telah mendekati nilai NAB yang berarti Nikel telah berdampak terhadap perairan. Perubahan kualitas perairan telah memberi dampak pada terdegradasinya ikan di perairan, di mana ikan yang di tangkap dengan menggunakan alat tangkap bagan mengalami ukuran IS, yaitu ikan teri mencapai 62%, dan cumi-cumi mengalami IS 67%. Besarnya IS pada ikan teri dan cumi-cumi di sebabkan oleh pengoperasian bagan yang berada dekat dari kawasan pesisir di mana daerah ini telah mengalami tekanan oleh aktivitas pertambangan. Purse seine dan gillnet berada sebaliknya dimana ukuran legal size (LS) lebih dominan. Ikan layang memiliki ukuran LS 96% dan ikan kembung memiliki ukuran LS 90%. Hal ini juga di sebabkan alat tangkap tersebut melakukan penangkapan jauh dari daerah pantai. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, pertambang Ni memberikan pengaruh yang besar terhadap penurunan kualitas perairan dan penurunan ukuran ikan layak tangkap terutama untuk alat tangkap bagan

Kata kunci: muatan padatan tersuspensi (MPT), nikel, panjang pertama kali matang gonad

ABSTRACT

East Halmahera District is one of the mining central areas Nickel in North Moluccas. This mining had a great impact on water quality changes. The aims of this study were to determine the content of Suspended Particulate Matter in East Halmahera waters, determine the water quality level, and determine fishing ground degradation level. The results showed the suspended solids in East Halmahera waters were above NAB, which had been set by Ministry of Environment those were less than 25 mg/l. While the average of SPM content in East Halmahera waters were above 25 mg/l except Wasile. The content of nickel in waters were known under NAB, but it had approached the NAB value which it means nickel had impacted the waters. Water quality changes had given impact to the fish degradation in waters, which the fish were captured by lift netwere classified in ilegal size (IS), that Stolephorus spp 62%, Loligo spp 67%. The number of IS for anchovy and squid were caused by lift net operation which were located near the coastal area where this area has been pressed by mining activities. Percentage of legal size (LS) were 96% for Decapterus spp. and 90% for Rastrelliger spp.. It was caused by fishing gear which operated far from coastal area. Based on the analysis, can be concluded that the mines Ni has a considerable effect on the degradation of water quality and reduction in size of a decent fish caught mainly lift nets.

Keywords: suspended particulate matter, nickel, length at first maturity (LM)

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