Prosiding Seminar PPM

PENGETAHUAN, PRAKTIK TENAGA KESEHATAN DAN IBU HAMIL TENTANG SUPLEMENTASI BESI DI WILAYAH DENGAN ANGKA KEMATIAN IBU YANG TINGGI

(Knowledge and Practice on Iron Supplementation Program of Health Workerand Pregnant Mothers at the Areas with High Maternal Mortality Rate)

Dodik Briawan, Leily Amalia, Siti Madanijah, Nunung Cipta Dainy

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ABSTRAK

Masih tingginya prevalensi anemia ibu hamil menyebabkan lambatnya penurunan angka kematian ibu (AKI) di Indonesia. Tenaga kesehatan tidak mampu dalam meningkatkan kepatuhan ibu hamil untuk minum tablet tambah darah (TTD). Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji pengetahuan dan praktik tenaga kesehatan serta ibu hamil tentang suplementasi besi di wilayah dengan AKI tinggi. Studi cross-sectional dilakukan di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya dan Kota Tangerang. Studi ini melibatkan subjek berturut-turut sebanyak 53 dan 64 orang tenaga kesehatan, serta ibu hamil 121 dan 120 orang di kedua wilayah. Tenaga kesehatan dengan pengetahuan gizi baik sebanyak 52,8% di Tasikmalaya dan 56,3% di Tangerang. Beberapa aspek anemia yang kurang dipahami dengan baik oleh subjek adalah definisi anemia, indikator anemia ibu hamil, sumber pangan zat besi, pangan yang meningkatkan penyerapan zat besi, serta jenis zat gizi dalam TTD. Pengetahuan ibu-ibu hamil tentang anemia dengan kategori kurang sebesar 85,1% di Tasikmalaya dan 75,0% di Tangerang. Ibu hamil kurang memahami tentang risiko anemia, sumber pangan zat besi, manfaat zat besi, cara konsumsi dan mengatasi efek samping. Kurang lebih 2/3 ibu hamil mengetahui minum TTD dapat mencegah anemia. Ibu hamil yang tidak patuh minum TTD 67,8% di Tasikmalaya dan 60,0% di Tangerang. Ibu hamil yang menyampaikan efek samping minum TTD berurut-turut 27,9 dan 44,2% orang. Kepatuhan minum TTD berhubungan signifikan dengan pengetahuan gizi dan nasihat petugas kesehatan (p<0,05).

Kata kunci: ibu hamil, petugas kesehatan, tablet tambah darah.


The high anemia prevalence among pregnant mothers has affected on the low rate reduction maternal mortality in Indonesia. The low capacity of health providers contributed in increasing pregnant mother’s compliance and adherence of iron-folate supplement (IFA). This study was aimed at analyzing knowledge and practice on iron supplementation among health worker and pregnant mothers. A cross-sectional study was done in areas considered had a high maternal mortality rate, namely Tasikmalaya District and Tangerang City. The subjects consisted of 53 and 64 health workers; and 121 and 120 pregnant mothers in each area, respectively. The subject of health workers with good knowledge level was 52.8% in Tasikmalaya and 56.3% in Tangerang. Several aspects on anemia that was not comprehended well by the subjects were a precise definition of anemia, indicators of anemia among pregnant mothers, source food of iron, kinds of food that can enhance iron absorption, and kinds of nutrients containing the tablets. The distribution of pregnant mothers with low knowledge level was still high, namely 85.1% in Tasikmalaya and 75.0% in Tangerang. Most of the pregnant mothers had limited knowledge on the risks of anemia, the food source of iron, advantages of iron for health, effective way to consume IFA supplement, and the ways to overcome side effects after consuming supplement. Approximately there were 2/3 pregnant mothers who have known that IFA was useful to prevent anemia. However, there were still about 67.8% mothers in Tasikmalaya and 60% mothers in Tangerang who did not strictly comply on IFA consumption. Besides, it was about 27.9% and 44.2% mothers in each area complained about the side effect after consuming the supplement. There was a significant correlation between pregnant mothers’ adherence of IFA and suggestion of health workers (p<0.05).

Keywords: health worker, iron supplement, pregnant mother.


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